Indonesia Expat
Lifestyle Sports/Health

Sleep Apnea Facts and Figures by ResMed

What is sleep-disordered breathing (SDB)?

SDB describes a number of nocturnal breathing disorders:

  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
  • Central sleep apnea (CSA)
  • Nocturnal hypoventilation
  • Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR)

What is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

  • The most common form of SDB
  • A partial or complete collapse of the upper airway caused by relaxation of the muscles controlling the soft palate and tongue
  • Person experiences apneas, hypopneas and flow limitation
  • Apnea: a cessation of airflow for more than ten seconds
  • Hypopnea: a decrease in airflow lasting more than ten seconds with a 30 percent reduction in airflow and at least a three percent oxygen desaturation from the baseline
  • Flow limitation: narrowing of the upper airway and an indication of an impending upper airway closure

Signs and symptoms of sleep apnea?

  • Lack of energy
  • Morning headaches
  • Frequent nocturnal urination
  • Depression
  • Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS)
  • Nighttime gasping, choking or coughing
  • Gastroesophageal reflux (GE reflux)
  • Irregular breathing during sleep (e.g., snoring)

Classification of sleep apnea

Apnea–hypopnea index (AHI)

  • Number of apneas and/or hypopneas per hour of sleep (or study time)
  • Reflects the severity of sleep apnea

AHI: less than five                             Normal range

AHI: five  to less than 15                   Mild sleep apnea

AHI: 15 to less than 30                      Moderate sleep apnea

AHI: ? 30                    Severe sleep apnea


Prevalence of sleep apnea

  • Approximately 42 million American adults have SDB1
  • An estimated 26 percent of adults have at least mild SDB2
  • Nine percent of middle-aged women and 25 percent of middle-aged men suffer from OSA3
  • Prevalence in the US is similar to asthma (20 million) and diabetes (23.6 million)4
  • 75 percent of severe SDB cases remain undiagnosed5

Increased risk factors for sleep apnea

  • Obesity (BMI >30)
  • Diagnosis of hypertension
  • Large neck circumference (>17” men; >16” women)
  • Male gender
  • Excessive use of alcohol or sedatives
  • Upper airway or facial abnormalities
  • Smoking
  • Family history of OSA
  • Endocrine and metabolic disorders

Cardiovascular links

  • 1 million people in the US have heart failure14
  • Approximately 76 percent of congestive heart failure patients have SDB8
  • Heart failure is the most expensive disorder to treat15
  • OSA noted in 49 percent of atrial fibrillation patients10 and 30 percent of cardiovascular patients13
  • OSA presents in 70 percent of heart attack patients with AHI greater than five and 52 percent of heart attack patients with AHI greater than ten16

Hypertension links

  • Studies have shown that sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for hypertension
  • 30–83 percent of patients with hypertension have sleep apnea6,12
  • 43 percent of patients with mild OSA and 69 percent of patients with severe OSA have hypertension5
  • AHA guidelines on drug-resistant hypertension have shown that treatment of sleep apnea with CPAP is likely to improve blood pressure control


Type 2 diabetes links

  • 48 percent of type two diabetes sufferers have sleep apnea11
  • OSA may have a causal role in the development of type two diabetes17
  • OSA is associated with insulin resistance (independent of obesity)18
  • 30 percent of patients presented to a sleep clinic have impaired glucose intolerance19
  • Mild forms of SDB may be important in predicting risk of pre-diabetes20
  • 86 percent of obese type two diabetic patients suffer from sleep apnea21

Stroke risk

  • 65 percent of stroke patients have SDB22
  • Moderate to severe sleep apnea triples stroke risk in men23

Mortality links

  • SDB is associated with a threefold increase in mortality risk5
  • There is an independent association of moderate to severe OSA with increased mortality risk3
  • Severe sleep apnea raises death risk by 46 percent24

Health care costs (Economic consequences of untreated SDB)

  • Patients with untreated OSA had 82 percent higher in-patient hospital costs than treated patients25
  • Patients with OSA have higher utilisation rates and incur greater costs than non-OSA patients for up to ten years prior to diagnosis26
  • OSA patients on PAP therapy have 31 percent lower total medical costs than patients not on PAP therapy25

Traffic accidents

  • In the year 2000, 810,000 US drivers were involved in a motor vehicle accident related to OSA – 1,400 involved fatalities27
  • Treating all US drivers suffering from sleep apnea would save US$11.1 billion in collision costs and saves 980 lives annually27

Treatment of OSA with CPAP

  • CPAP treatment reduces the need for acute hospital admission due to cardiovascular disease in patients with sleep apnea28
  • CPAP reduces blood glucose levels29
  • Two nights of CPAP improves insulin sensitivity, sustained at the three-month interval30
  • For every dollar spent on CPAP, US$3.49 would be saved in reduced collision costs27


For more information get in touch with:

PT ResIndo Medika

Graha BIP, 5th Floor

Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto Kav. 23

Jakarta 12930


Phone: +62-21 525 8230-31

Fax   :  +62-21 252 1380

Mobile: +62-856 802 8888

            +62-812 8853 1052



  • Young et al. New Engl J Med 1993
  • Peppard et al. J Am Med Assoc 2013
  • Marshall et al. Sleep 2008
  • US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2008
  • Young et al. Sleep 2008
  • Logan et al. J Hypertens 2001
  • O’Keeffe & Patterson. Obes Surg 2004
  • Oldenburg et al. Eur J Heart Fail 2007
  • Garrigue et al. Circulation 2007
  • Gami et al. Circulation 2004
  • Einhorn et al. Endocr Pract 2007
  • Sjostrom et al. Thorax 2002
  • Schafer et al. Cardiology 1999
  • Go AS, et al. American Heart Association 2013
  • Medicare – $20.4 billion p.a.
  • Kuniyoshi et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008
  • 17 Reichmuth et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2005
  • 18 Punjabi et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002
  • Meslier et al. Eur Respir J 2003
  • Stamatakis et al. Sleep 2008
  • Foster et al. Diabetes Care 2009
  • Dyken et al. Stroke 1996
  • Redline et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010
  • Punjabi et al. PLoS Medicine 2009
  • Potts et al. Popul Health Manag 2012
  • Albarrak et al. Sleep 2005
  • Sassani et al. Sleep 2004
  • Peker et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997
  • Babu et al. Arch Intern Med 2005
  • Harsch et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2004


Signup for our Newsletter

Related posts

The Royal Palaces and Holy Waters of Eastern Bali

Grace Susetyo

The Intersection of the Knowledge Economy and Globalisation

Shoeb Kagda

Top 10 Most Expensive Indonesian Paintings

Kenneth Yeung